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A - Z Trucking Terminology

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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accessorial service
ad Valorem Tax
agent
assets
ATA
audit of freight bills
automobile transporter
average gross revenue per loaded mile
axle weight
back-haul
balance sheet
balloon freight
basing point
basing rate
billed weight
bill of lading
blue label
bobtail
bogey
bottlers body
box
break bulk
bridge law
brokerage license
bulk freight
burden of proof
cab
cab-beside-engine motor or truck tractor motor
cab-over-engine motor truck or truck tractor
camel back body
carload
carrier
carrier?s lien
cartage
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity
charge backs
circuitous route
cityliner
claim Class I motor carrier
Class II motor carrier
Class III motor carrier
classification (freight)
clean bill of lading clearing house
COFC
collateral
collect shipment combination vehicle
commodity
commodity tariff common carrier
computer simulation
concealed damage
concealed loss
concrete mixer consignee
consignment
consignor
containerization contract carrier
convertible
cubic foot current assets and liabilities
deadhead
demurrage
depreciation
destination
detention
differential rate
dispatching
distance rate
dolly
DOT
double bottom
drayage
dray body
dromedary
dump body dunnage
dyno check
Elkins Act
en route
entry (customs)
escrow exclusive use of truck
exempt carrier
exempt commodity
FCC
FICA
fifth wheel
fixed charges
flat bed
float
free-astray
free on board (FOB)
free time
freight bill
freight charges
freight forwarder
full trailer
furniture van body
FUTA
general freight carrier
goods
grain body
grandfather rights
gray area
gross combination weight (GCW)
gross ton
gross weight
gypsy
heater service
Heavy specialized carrier
high-cube
high torque rise engines
hopper body
horse van body
hot load
household good miles
ICC
independent contractor
initial carrier initial point
insulated van body
interchange points
interline freight
intermediate carrier (bridge)
intermodal transportation
interstate
intrastate
jacket
joint rate
joint routes
knocked down
known damage
known loss
lading
lawful rate
layover time
lease purchase
less-than-truckload
liabilities
lift tail gate
line haul
live axle
livestock body
loaded mile
local cartage carrier
local rate
local tariff
log body
log book
logistics
long ton
low-bed trailer
low-boy
LTL
manifest
mark
marks
maximum gross combination weight
maximum rate
memorandum bill of lading
mileage tariff minimum rate
minimum truckload weight
mixed truckload
mode
motor vehicle
munitions carrier
multi-stop body
NAFC
net weight
non-powered axle
non-regulated trucking
obsolescence
oilfield body
open top
operating expense
operating ratio
OSHA
overcharge
owner-operator
pallet
palletized
parasitic horsepower
payload
peddle freight
peddle run
perishable freight
permits
piggyback
piggybacks
platform body
PMs
point of origin pole trailer
powered axle
power unit
prepaid
principal
private carrier
prohibited articles
proof of delivery
proportional rate
pro rate
publication
pulp wood body
purchased transportation
rag top
rate
rate basis
rated freight bill
rate scale
reciprocity
recooper red label
reefer
refrigeration
refund
regulated carrier
regulated commodities
reparation
restricted articles
rig
riggers body
route
S corporation
SECA
semi-trailer
shippers'load and count
shipper's order
shipping order
shipping papers
shortage
short ton
skid
sleeper
sleeper cab
sliding fifth wheel
sliding tandem
specifications
split pickup or delivery
spread tandem
stake body
standard rate
standard route
state trucking association
statute of limitations
steering axle
stevedore straight truck
storage in transit
stowage freight surcharge
surtax
tachograph
tandem
tandem axle
tank body
tank trailer
tank truck carrier
tare weight
tariff
terminal
third structure tax
through rate
tilt cab
TOFC
tolerance
toll
ton-mile
trace
tractor
trailer
trip lease
truckload truck mile earnings
truck tractor
turn around
turnpike double
twin screw
twin trailer
unclaimed freight
undercharge
valuation, actual
via
volume rate
warehouse receipt
way bill
weight-distance tax
weight sheets
wet goods
wrecker body
yard jockey
yard mule

accessorial service: a service rendered by a carrier secondary to a transportation service. Examples are storage, reconsignment, stopping in transit to complete loading or to partially unload, etc.

ad Valorem Tax: a charge levied on persons or organizations based on the value of transaction. It is normally a given percentage of the price at the retail or manufacturing state and is a common form of sales tax; e.g. Federal excise tax on new trucks and trailers.

agent: person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another.

assets: future economic benefits obtained by an entity as a result of past transactions or events.

ATA: American Trucking Associations, Inc. -- serves the united interests of the trucking industry through a national federation of 50 independent state trucking associations plus the District of Columbia (each representing all classes and types of trucking operation), 12 independent conferences (each representing a special class or type truck operation) and the national headquarters.

audit of freight bills: the process of verifying if transportation charges shown on the carrier?s freight bill are reasonable.

automobile transporter: any company certified to transport motor vehicles by hauling them on special vehicles or driving them.

average gross revenue per loaded mile: average total payment received per mile traveled with a load.

axle weight: amount of weight transmitted to the highway by one axle.

back-haul (a) to haul a shipment back over a part of a route traveled; (b) traffic moving in direction of light flow when a carrier?s traffic on a route is heavier in one direction than the other.

balance sheet: a financial statement listing all assets, liabilities and owner?s equity at a certain date.

balloon freight: light, bulky cargo.

basing point: a point in which rates to another destination are computed through. For example, a rate from Louisville, KY to a point near Jacksonville, Fl is computed as follows: The rate form Louisville to Jacksonville to the nearby point. Jacksonville, in this case, is the basing point.

basing rate: (see proportional rate)

billed weight: the weight shown in a freight bill.

bill of lading: written transportation contract between shipper and carrier (or their agents). It identifies the freight, who is to receive it, and the place of delivery. In addition, it gives terms of the agreement.

blue label: atomic material shipment.

bobtail: truck operating without a trailer.

bogey: a two-axle assembly

bottlers body: truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of cased bottled beverages.

box: trailer or semi-trailer. Also, the transmission of a motor vehicle.

break bulk: to separate a composite load into individual shipments and route to different destinations.

bridge law: federal regulations specifying maximum weight based on the distance in feet between axles.

brokerage license: authority granted by Interstate Commerce Commission to persons engaged in the business of arranging for motor vehicle transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce.

bulk freight: unpackaged freight such as wheat, petroleum products, etc.

burden of proof: the obligation to prove disputed facts at issue on a legal proceeding.

cab: driver?s compartment of a truck or tractor-trailer.

cab-beside-engine motor or truck tractor motor: motor truck or truck tractor with the driver?s compartment and controls located beside the engine.

cab-over-engine motor truck or truck tractor: motor truck or truck tractor with a substantial part of its engine located under the cab.

camel back body: truck body with floor curving downward at the rear.

carload: shipment of freight required to fill a rail car.

carrier: and individual, partnership, or corporation engaged in the business of transporting goods or persons.

carrier?s lien: carrier?s claim on property it has transported as security for charges.

cartage (local) hauling between locations in the same town or city or contiguous municipalities.

Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity: authority of certificate granted by the ICC or state regulatory agencies and required of certain for-hire carriers.

charge backs: those costs assumed by the carrier for independent contractors. It is understood through the lease that these costs will be charged back to the independent contractor at a later date.

circuitous route: an indirect route.

cityliner: truck used in the city for pickup and delivery. Also called "cub," "pickup," "whoopee," and "shags."

claim: (a) a demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of loss or damage alleged to have occurred while shipment was in possession of carrier; (b) a demand upon a transportation company for refund of an over charge.

Class I motor carrier: carrier with annual gross operating revenues of $10 million or more from motor carrier operations defined by ICC.

Class II motor carrier: annual gross operating revenues of $3 million to $9,999,999 from motor carrier operations.

Class III motor carrier: annual gross operating revenues of less than $ 3 million from motor carrier operations.

classification (freight): a publication containing a list of articles and the classes to which they are assigned for the purpose of applying class rates, together with governing rules and regulations.

clean bill of lading: a bill of lading signed by the carrier for receipt of merchandise in good condition (no damage, loss, etc., apparent) and which does not bear such notion as "shipper?s load and count."

clearing house: an organization set up to process and collect bills fro participation trucking companies.

COFC: container without chassis on a railflat car. A form of intermodal movement of freight (rail and ocean).

collateral: pledge of security for borrowing money, usually in the form of a material possession.

collect shipment: a shipment where the delivering carrier collects freight charges and advances.

combination vehicle: an equipment configuration which includes a tractor combined with a trailer.

commodity: any article of commerce; goods shipped.

commodity tariff: a tariff containing only commodity rates.

common carrier: a company holding itself out to the general public to provide motor vehicle transportation for compensation over regular or irregular routes, or both.

computer simulation: some truck dealers can program different combinations of specifications into a computer in order to judge fuel economy and performance, Mechanics also hook up vehicles to computers to discover malfunctioning parts.

concealed damage: a damage to the contents of a package which is apparently in good condition externally.

concealed loss: loss or damage that cannot be determined until the package is opened.

concrete mixer: truck body designed to mix and agitate concrete.

consignee: the person or firm to whom articles are shipped.

consignment: a shipment

consignor: the person or firm by whom articles are shipped.

containerization: shipping system based upon large cargo-carrying containers that easily can be interchanged between trucks, trains, and ships without rehandling the contents.

contract carrier: a company engaging in for-hire transportation of property under individual contract or agreement with one or a number of shippers.

convertible: a truck or trailer that can be used either as a flatbed or open top by means of removing side panels.

cubic foot: a common measure of the capacity of a truck. 1,728 cubic inches.

current assets and liabilities: assets which can be liquidated and liabilities due in less than one year.

deadhead: traveling without a load.

demurrage: detention of a vehicle beyond the time allowed for loading, unloading, etc. Also the payment mode for such a delay.

depreciation: a decrease in value; a reduction of loss in exchange value or purchasing power.

destination: the place to which a shipment is to be delivered.

detention: see demurrage.

differential rate: the amount added to or subtracted from a through (basing) rate to make a rate. For example, the rate Chicago to Philadelphia is made up of the basis rate (Chicago to New York) less the differential basis (or rate ) to Philadelphia.

dispatching: the scheduling and control of intercity traffic and intracity pickup and delivery.

distance rate: charge made on basis of miles traveled, often used as one component of a freight rate.

dolly: an auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for purpose of converting a semi-trailer to a full trailer.

DOT: Department of Transportation

double bottom: combination consisting of a truck tractor, a semi-trailer, and a full trailer coupled together.

drayage: the charge made for hauling freight on carts, drays or trucks.

dray body (see camel back body).

dromedary: a vehicle which combines features of a truck and truck tractor. It has a van body at the rear of the cab and a fifth wheel to the rear of the body.

dump body: truck or trailer body of any type which can be tilted to discharge its load by gravity.

dunnage: the material used to protect or support freight in trucks. The weight of dunnage is shown separately on the bill of lading since it is material used around a cargo to prevent damage.

dyno check: the placement of the power vehicle on a device which indicates horsepower delivered to the ground.

Elkins Act: a law providing penalties for giving rebates and other violations of the Interstate Commerce Act.

en route: on the way.

entry (customs) a statement of the kinds, quantities, and values of goods imported together with duties due, if any, declared before a customs office or designated officer.

escrow: money placed with a third person with direction to use it for a specific purpose, usually payment of taxes or insurance.

exclusive use of truck: a request made by a shipper on the bill of lading for the complete use of a vehicle.

exempt carrier: trucks hauling certain commodities which are exempt form ICC economic regulation. By far the largest portion of exempt carriers transport agricultural commodities or seafood.

exempt commodity: a commodity that may be transported in both interstate and intrastate commerce without operating authority or published rates.

FCC: Federal Communications Commission.

FICA: Federal Insurance Contribution Ac (Social Security).

fifth wheel: a device used to connect a semi-trailer and tractor.

fixed charges: carrier costs that do not vary with an increase or decrease in traffic. An accounting classification, sometimes called fixed operation costs.

flat bed: a semi-trailer with no sides.

float: see flat bed.

free-astray: a shipment miscarried or unloaded at the wrong terminal is billed and forwarded to the correct terminal free of charge because it is astray. Hence the term "free-astray."

free on board (FOB): usually indicates place where responsibility for expenses and risk for goods is passed from seller to buyer. For example, FOB motor carrier would usually mean that a price quoted for goods world include loading on a truck at the seller?s building. This term is not always used precisely and it?s best to quality it to show exactly what is meant.

free time: the period freight will be held before storage charges are applied.

freight bill: document for a carrier shipment giving a description of the freight, its weight, amount of charges, the rate of charges, taxes, and whether it is collect or prepaid. If the charges are paid in advance or are to be collected at the origin, it is called a prepaid freight bill. If the charges are to be collected at the destination, it is called a destination or collect freight bill.

See Picture

freight charges: payment due for freight transportation.

freight forwarder: an individual or company that accepts less-than-truckload (LTL) or less-than-carload (LCL) shipments from shippers and combines them into carload and truckload lots. Designated as a common carrier under the Interstate Commerce Act.

full trailer: truck trailer with wheels on both ends (as compared to a semi-trailer in which the front rests on the rear of the power unit.

furniture van body: Truck body designed primarily for transportation of furniture or household goods. Furniture van trailers are usually of drop frame construction.

FUTA: Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

general freight carrier: a carrier which handles a wide variety of commodities, typically in LTL quantities and generally involves the use of terminal facilities to break and consolidate shipments.

goods: merchandise.

grain body: low side open top truck or trailer body primarily designed to transport dry fluid commodities.

grandfather rights: the right provided in the Motor Carrier Act for a common or contract carrier to obtain a certification of public convenience and necessity to operate over the route or routes, over which it or its predecessor in interest was in bona fide operation on June 1, 1935, without further proof of public convenience and necessity.

gray area: except for those carrying certain exempt commodities, for-hire trucking companies must be certificated and regulated by state and federal governments. "Gray area" carriers illegally operate as for-hire carriers through the use of some form of subterfuge or camouflage.

gross combination weight (GCW) how much the entire rig weighs including tractor, trailer and load.

gross ton: 2,240 pounds. More commonly called a long ton.

gross weight: (a) the weight of an article together with the weight of its container and the material used in packing; (b) as applied to a truck, the weight of a truck together with the weight of its entire contents.

gypsy: an independent truck operator who drives his own truck and obtains freight wherever he can.

heater service: protection by heat of freight that would be damaged by freezing.

Heavy specialized carrier: a trucking company franchised to transport articles which because of size, shape, weight, or other inherent characteristics require special equipment for loading, unloading, or transporting.

high-cube: a body with above average cubic content. Usually constructed with low floors and thin walls.

high torque rise engines: the latest technology in fuel efficient engines.

hopper body: truck or trailer body capable of discharging its load through a bottom opening without tilting.

horse van body: truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of valuable horses.

hot load: emergency shipment of cargo needed in a hurry.

household good miles: a source of mileage between points commonly used by shippers and carriers for freight rate purposes.

ICC: Interstate Commerce Commission.

independent contractor: the person who owns and operates a truck, leasing himself and/or his rig for hauling products interstate. Same as owner-operator.

initial carrier: the transportation line that picks up a shipment from the shipper.

initial point: the point at which a shipment originates.

insulated van body: van body designed primarily for transportation of commodities at controlled temperatures. It may be provided with equipment for refrigeration or heating.

interchange points: a terminal where freight is transferred from one transportation line to another.

interline freight: freight moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation companies.

intermediate carrier (bridge): a transportation line hauling a shipment between the originating and delivery carrier.

intermodal transportation: transportation movement involving more than one mode, e.g. rail-motor, motor-air, or rail-water.

interstate: between states.

intrastate: within a state.

jacket: a cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles.

joint rate: a rate for hauling a single shipment over two or more independent transportation lines, which cooperate to offer a through service. The shipment travels on one bill of lading.

joint routes: routes established by two or more connecting carriers for the continuous through-movement of traffic over their lines.

knocked down: a term denoting that an article is partially or entirely taken apart (net set up).

known damage: damage discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.

known loss: loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment.

lading: that which constitutes a load; the freight in a vehicle.

lawful rate: any rate constructed and published in accordance with the laws, rules and regulations administered by the ICC in interstate traffic, or by state commissions in intrastate traffic.

layover time: the non-working time that a road driver spends away from his home terminal before being dispatched to some other destination.

lease purchase: method of purchasing a rig from a regulated carrier, whereby rent (paid to the carrier for the privilege of using the cab) is applied to the principal owed.

less-than-truckload: (LTL) a quantity of freight less than the required for the application of a truckload rate. Usually less than 10,000 pounds.

liabilities: future economic sacrifices as a result of present obligations to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future. The obligations arise form past transactions or events.

lift tail gate: a power-operated tail gate capable of lifting a load from street level to the level of the truck or trailer floor.

line haul: movement of freight between cities and terminals. Line haul does not include pickup and delivery service.

live axle: axle driven by engine.

livestock body: truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of livestock.

loaded mile: distance traveled with a loaded trailer.

local cartage carrier: a company that transports property entirely within the commercial zone of a municipality (or contiguous cities). This may be pickup and delivery service for a line haul carrier.

local rate: a rate applying between stations located on the same transportation line.

local tariff: a tariff containing rates applicable only between terminals located on the same transportation line.

log body: truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of logs or other loads which may be boomed or chained in place.

log book: a book carried by truck drivers containing daily records of hours, routes, etc. Log books are required by ICC regulations.

logistics: process of systematizing information to facilitate the efficient and cost-effective flows of goods and services to produce customer satisfaction. The Council of Logistics Management defines logistics management as: "The process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods, and related information from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements."

long ton: 2,240 pounds.

low-bed trailer: open truck trailer constructed to provide a low platform height. Designed for the transportation of extremely heave or bulky property.

low-boy: see low-bed trailer.

LTL: see less than truckload.

manifest: a document describing a shipment or the contents of a vehicle or ship.

mark: slang expression used to refer to a shipment, as in "large Mark," "4 Marks."

marks: letters, numbers and characters put on a package for identification.

maximum gross combination weight: the most weight allowed by law for a tractor and loaded trailer combined.

maximum rate: the highest lawful rate that may be charged.

memorandum bill of lading: a duplicate copy of a bill of lading.

mileage tariff: a tariff containing rates applied according to distance.

minimum rate: the lowest lawful rate that may be charged.

minimum truckload weight: the lowest weight at which a shipment is handled at a truck load rate.

mixed truckload: a truckload consisting of different articles in a single shipment.

mode: frequently used to refer to the basis divisions of the transportation industry. The principal modes of transportation are truck, rail, air and water.

motor vehicle: any vehicle, self-propelled or drawn by mechanical power, designed for operation on the highways or natural terrain in the transportation of property or passengers.

munitions carrier: a company that transports munitions by motor vehicle.

multi-stop body: fully enclosed truck body with driver?s compartment specifically designed for quick and easy entrance and exit.

NAFC: National Accounting & Finance Council, a self-sustaining group within the American Trucking Associations, Inc., composed of individuals specializing in motor carrier accounting and finance.

net weight: (a) the weight of an article excluding packing and container; (b) as applied to a truck-load, the weight of the entire contents of the truck.

non-powered axle: an axle that supports part of the vehicle weight but does not transmit driving force to the wheels. Also called a dead axle.

non-regulated trucking: a carrier which is exempt for m economic regulation, e.g. exempt agricultural shipments and private trucking operations.

obsolescence: state of becoming obsolete; no longer in use.

oilfield body: heavily-constructed platform type truck body equipped with a rear end roller or bullnose adapted for winch loading. Designed primarily for work in oil fields.

open top: a truck or trailer without a permanent metal top.

operating expense: the cost of handling traffic.

operating ratio: total operating expenses divided by gross freight revenue.

OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

overcharge: to charge more than the amount provided in the proper tariff.

owner-operator: the person who owns and operates his rig; see independent contractor.

pallet: a portable platform for holding material for storage or transportation.

palletized: stacked on pallets.

parasitic horsepower: power produced by the engine, but absorbed by vehicle components before being delivered to the ground by the drive tires.

payload: total weight of the commodity being carried on a truck at a given time including packaging, banding, etc.

peddle freight: shipments delivered from a terminal location to small surrounding communities beyond normal delivery limits.

peddle run: truck run with frequent deliveries en route.

perishable freight: freight subject to decay or deterioration.

permits: (a) authority granted by the ICC to allow motor carriers to operate in interstate commerce; (b) permission granted to carriers by states to transport freight exceeding legal weight and size limits.

piggyback: transportation of a highway trailer on a rail flatcar. There are five basic piggyback plans. Plan I is transportation on a trucking company owned trailer on a rail flatcar, for which the trucking company pays a negotiated rate. In Plan II, the railroad furnishes both trailer and flatcar. In Plan III, a shipper or freight forwarder owns the trailer. Plan IV is like Plan III, but the shipper or forwarder also owns the flatcar. Under Plan V, the company and railroad cooperate to offer the joint rate. A trucking company trailer is used.

piggybacks: transportation of a highway trailer on a rail flatcar.

platform body: truck or trailer body with a floor but no sides or roof.

PMs: preventive maintenance inspections.

point of origin: the terminal at which a shipment is received by a transportation line form the shipper.

pole trailer: truck trailer which uses a rigid pole as a structural member connecting the axle unit to the truck pulling it. They are used to haul long, rigid loads such as logs, poles, pipe and other cargo capable of resting as a beam between the axle unit and the truck pulling the trailer.

powered axle: an axle that supports a portion of the vehicle weight and transmits a driving force to the wheels. Frequently called a drive axle.

power unit: see tractor.

prepaid: a term denoting that transportation charges have been or are to be paid at shipping point.

principal: amount of actual debt, as opposed to amount of interest.

private carrier: a company not primarily engaged in the transportation business, but hauls its own property.

prohibited articles: articles which will not be handled.

proof of delivery: carrier establishes proof of delivery from delivery receipt copy of freight bill signed by consignee at time of delivery. This is legal proof of delivery.

proportional rate: a rate specifically published to be used only as a factor in making a combination through rate. A rate from New York to Chicago published to apply only on traffic destined points beyond Chicago would be a proportional rate.

pro rate: to divide or distribute proportionally, such as license fee based on proportion of miles traveled in each state.

publication: making public tariffs, circulars, bill instructions, guide books, territorial directories, classifications, exception sheets. This must be done in the manner required by the Interstate Commerce Act or state law.

pulp wood body: truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of pulp wood.

purchased transportation: payment of local charges to a connecting carrier, with whom we do not have occurrence of a joint route for delivering a shipment to a point we have rights to service, but which we give to the connecting carrier for our operating convenience.

rag top: open top trailer using a tarpaulin for a covering.

rate: the charge for transporting freight.

rate basis: a formula containing the specific factors used in making a rate.

rated freight bill: a freight bill showing quantities, price per unit, and total price.

rate scale: a table of rates graduated according to distance or zones.

reciprocity: the granting of privileges by a state to vehicles or vehicle owners from another state in return for similar privileges. The privileges may be complete exemption from the payment of all fees and motor vehicle taxes or partial exemption.

recooper: repair damaged cartons or containers.

red label: a label required on shipments or articles of an inflammable character.

reefer: a refrigerated trailer used for carrying refrigerated products.

refrigeration: the protection of perishable freight by ice or mechanical means.

refund: repayment of excess freight charges.

regulated carrier: those carriers transporting commodities for which operating authority from the ICC is required.

regulated commodities: those commodities which are transported

under governmental regulation.

reparation: compensation for damage.

restricted articles: commodities that cannot be handled at all or may be handled under certain specific conditions.

rig: truck, tractor semi-trailer truck and full trailer, or other combinations.

riggers body: truck body similar to an oilfield body designed primarily for rigging work.

route: (a) the course or direction that a shipment moves; (b) to designate the course or direction a shipment shall move; (c) the carrier or carriers by which a shipment moves.

S corporation: a manner of incorporating limited to 35 shareholders whereby you enjoy the benefit of limited liability, as a corporation does, but you are taxed only once at individual income tax rates not corporate tax rates.

SECA: Self-Employment Contributions Act.

semi-trailer: truck-trailer equipped with one or more axles and constructed so that the front end rests upon a truck-tractor. A substantial part of the weight of both trailer and load rests on the tractor.

shippers'load and count: indicates that the contents of a truck were loaded and counted by the shipper and not checked or verified by the transportation line.

shipper's order: the document authorizing release of a shipment (See bill of lading).

shipping order: instructions to carrier for transportation of a shipment. Usually it is a copy of the bill of lading. Used also as a record by the freight agent at origin.

shipping papers: papers used in connection with movement of freight.

shortage: when quantity actually received is less than that shown on the waybill.

short ton: 2,000 pounds (also, net ton)

skid: a wooden platform on which heavy articles or packaged goods are placed to permit handling equipment.

sleeper: truck with a sleeping compartment in the cab.

sleeper cab: a truck tractor or more truck cab incorporating a bed or bunk.

sliding fifth wheel: a fifth wheel assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the truck tractor to obtain desired load distribution between tractor and trailer axles.

sliding tandem: a two-axle assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the trailer body to obtain desired load distribution.

specifications: descriptions of particulars or details.

split pickup or delivery: an accessorial service of picking up or delivering portions of volume shipments at more than one place within origin or destination point boundaries.

spread tandem: a two-axle assembly in which the axles are separated by distances substantially greater than that in conventional assemblies.

stake body: truck or trailer platform body with readily removable stakes. The stakes may be joined by chains, slats or panels.

standard rate: a rate established for direct routes from one point to another. Rates via other routes between the same points are set in relation to the standard rate.

standard route: the carrier or carriers having a direct route between two points.

state trucking association: an independent and autonomous association representing all classes and types of truck operation in a state. American Trucking Associations, Inc. is a federation of these trucking associations.

statute of limitations: a law limiting the time in which claims or suits may be instituted.

steering axle: an axle through which directional control of the vehicle is applied. A steering axle may be powered on non-powered. A unit may have more than one steering axle.

stevedore: one who loads or unloads ships.

straight truck: a truck with the body and engine mounted on the same chassis, as contrasted to a combination unit such as a tractor-semi-trailer.

storage in transit: temporary safekeeping of a shipment at a point between origin and destination.

stowage freight: freight stored or packed as in a terminal or on board a truck.

surcharge: a charge above the usual or customary charge.

surtax: an additional or extra tax.

tachograph: a device used in a cab to automatically record miles driven, number of stops, speed, and other factors during a trip.

tandem: an assembly of two axles, either of which may be powered.

tandem axle: an assembly of two axles, either of which may be powered.

tank body: fully enclosed truck or tractor body designed to transport commodities, in bulk.

tank trailer: fully enclosed truck trailer designed solely for the transportation of commodities in bulk.

tank truck carrier: any for-hire carrier holding itself out to serve the general public and authorized to carry petroleum, chemical, liquid or dry commodities in bulk by means of specialized tank truck units.

tare weight: (a) the weight of a container and the material used for packing; (b) as applied to a loaded truck, the weight of the truck exclusive of its contents.

tariff: a published schedule showing the rates, fares, charges, classification, rules, regulations, etc., applying to transportation and incidental services.

terminal: a facility including building structures, and equipment for the storage transfer, handling, delivery and reception of vehicles and materials.

third structure tax: registration fees and gasoline taxes are called the first two structures of highway user taxation. Any other type of tax is called a third structure tax.

through rate: a rate applicable for transportation all the way from point of origin to destination. A through rate may be either a joint rate or a combination of two or more rates.

tilt cab: a cab-over-engine truck or truck tractor cab designed to provide ready access to the engine.

TOFC: trailer on (rail) flatcar. See piggyback.

tolerance: permissible variation. For example, some states allow a tolerance in their maximum truck weight limits.

toll: a charge made for the use of a facility, such as a bridge or turnpike.

ton-mile: a unit of measure of transportation. The movement of one ton of freight one mile.

trace: to check the movement of a shipment.

tractor: a cab, the engine-powered vehicle used to pull a trailer.

trailer: that part of the vehicle used to haul goods and hooked up to an engine-powered tractor.

trip lease: a one-trip-only lease.

truckload: (a) quantity of freight that will fill a truck; (b) quantity of freight weighing the maximum legal amount for a particular type of truck; (c) when used in connection with freight rates, the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate.

truck mile earnings: determined by dividing the gross freight revenue by total miles traveled.

truck tractor: a motor vehicle designed primarily for drawing truck trailers and semi-trailers. Constructed to carry part of the weight and load of a semi-trailer.

turn around: truck run in which the driver returns to the origin point immediately after his vehicle is unloaded and re-loaded.

turnpike double: a combination vehicle consisting of a power unit (tractor) and two trailers of at least 40' in length.

twin screw: a truck or tractor with two rear axles, both driven by the engine.

twin trailer: a short semi-trailer (under 29') designed to be operated as part of a combination vehicle with a tandem trailer of similar length.

unclaimed freight: freight which has not been called for by the consignee or owner, or freight that cannot be delivered.

undercharge: to charge less than the proper amount.

valuation, actual: actual value of goods required to be shown on bill of lading by shipper, when rate to be applied is dependent on that fact.

via: by way of.

volume rate: a low rate offered to shippers who agree to ship a large quantity of freight.

warehouse receipt: a receipt for goods placed in a warehouse (may be issued as a negotiable or nonnegotiable document).

way bill: description of goods sent with a common carrier freight shipment.

weight-distance tax: a tax basing the fee per mile on the registered gross weight of the vehicle. Total tax liability is calculated by multiplying this rate times miles traveled.

weight sheets: list furnished by shippers to weighing bureaus itemizing articles in each consignment.

wet goods: liquids.

wrecker body: truck body designed primarily for transportation of disabled vehicles and equipped with a means for hoisting and towing such vehicle.

yard jockey: person who operates a yard tractor or yard mule.

yard mule: small tractor used to move semi-trailers around the terminal yard.

Glossary of Abbreviations

In the transportation business, time and space are often at a premium. Many abbreviations and special terms are used to speed up communications and simplify documents such as teletype messages, bills of lading and freight bills. They may or may not differ from dictionary abbreviations. The terms have a meaning peculiar to our industry.

The listings which follow will serve as a reference point. Abbreviations which are commonly used in teletype transmission are included here.

ACO: Area Cashiering Office

Adv: Advance

AF: Astray Freight

AM: Morning

Amdt: Amendment

Amt: Amount

Ans: Answer

A/P: Accounts Payable

AQ: Any Quantity

A/R: Accounts Receivable (total the split boxes)

Arb: Arbitrary

Ariv: Arrival

Arr: Arrived

Art: Article

ATA: American Trucking Associa tions, Inc.

Auth: Authority, Authorized

Avdp: Avoirdupois

Avg: Average

A/W: Actual Weight

B&SG: Browne & Sharpe Gauge

Bal: Balance

Bb: Break Bulk

Bbl: Barrel

Be: Bulk Commodities

BdI: Bundle

B.E. : (a) Bureau of Explosives (ICC); (b) Bill of Exchange

Biz: Business

BL or B/L: Bill of Lading

Bls: Bales

B.M.C. : Bureau of Motor Carriers (ICC)

Bskt: Basket

Bu: (a) Bushel; (b) Bureau

Bul: Bulletin

Bwg: Birmingham Wire Gauge

Bx: Box

Byd: Beyond

C&SMFA: Central & Southern Motor Freight Association

Cane: Canceled

CBE: Cab-Beside-Engine

CC: Connecting Carrier

CDR: Certified Delivery Receipt

CFA: Central Freight Association

CFB: Corrected Freight Bill

CFI: Canadian Freightways, Ltd.

Chg: Charge

Cir: Circular

Ck: (a) Check; (b) Cash

CL: (a) Connecting Line; (b) Car Load

Class'n: Classification

C/O: Care Of

COD: Collection Delivery; Cash on Delivery

COE: Cab-Over-Engine

Col: Column

Coll: Collect (freight charges)

Com: Committee

Comb: Combination

Com'l: Commercial

Comm: Commission

Cone: Concluded

Cons: Consignee

Cont: Continued

Cor L: Corrosive Liquid

CPG: Cotton Piece Goods

Cr: (a) Credit; (b) Creditor

CR: Carrier's Risk

CRA: Central Revenue Accounting

C/S: Collection Sheet

C.S.M.F.B. : Central States Motor Freight Bureau

Ct or Cty: County

Cts: Cents

CuFt: (a) Cubic Foot; (b) Cubic Feet

Cwt: Hundred Weight

Cyl: Cylinder

DAT: Dangerous Articles Tariff

DBA: Doing Business As

Dept: Department

Dest: Destination

DH Co: Deadhead-Company Business

Diam: Diameter

Diff: Differential

Disc: Discount

Disp: (a) Dispatch; (b) Dispatcher

Dist: Distance

Div: Division

Dk: (a) Dock; (b) Docket

Dly: Delivery (delv-more common)

Dmg: Damage

Do: Ditto (same)

DOT: Department of Transportation

Doz: Dozen

Dr: (a) Drums; (b) Debit

D/R: Delivery Receipt

D/S: Driver Salesman

Dup: Duplicate

Ea: Each

Eb: Eastbound

E.C.M.C.A. : Eastern Central Motor Carriers Association

eg: Exempli gratia (for example)

Eq: Equal

Equip: Equipment

Est: Estimated

Est Wt: Estimated Weight

Etc. : Et Cetera (and other things; and so forth)

Ex: (a) Exchange; (b) Example; (c) From

Ex BL: Exchange Bill of Lading

Excpt: Exception

Exp: (a) Expense; (b) Export; (c) Express

F: Fahrenheit

FA: (a) Free Astray; (b) Freight Astray

FB: Freight Bill

FDBA: Formerly doing business as

Fir: Firkin

FOB: Free on Board

Frt: Freight

Frtline: Freightliner Corporation

Ft: (a) Feet; (b) Foot; (c) Fort

FTC: Freightways Terminal Company

Fwd: Forward

Gal: Gallon

GBL: Government Bill of Lading

Gds: Goods

HH: Heavy Hauling

HH: Goods or Hhg Household Goods

Hhd: Hogshead

Ht: Height

I&S: Docket Investigation and Susper sion Docket III (a) Inbound; (b) in Bond

ICC: Interstate Commerce Commission

ICC Rep: Interstate Commerce Commission reports

ICC Spec'n: Interstate Commerce Commission specification

ICCFF: Designation used on tariffs filed with Interstate Commerce Commission by freight Forwarders

i.e. : Id est (that is)

IFA: Illinois Freight Association

IFCC: Interstate Freight Carriers Con ference

IL: Interline

Imp: Import

IMR & TB: Indiana Motor Rate and Tariff Bureau

Inc: (a) Inclusive; (b) Incorporated

Infl: Inflammable Liquid

Info: Information

InfS: Inflammable Solid

Ins: Insurance

Inst: Instant (this month)

Int Rev or IRS: Internal Revenue Service

Inte: Interstate

Inv: Invoice

IRD: Internal Revenue Department

IT: Item

Itb: In-Transit Bills

Jct: Junction

Jt: Joint

K: Thousand

KDF: Knocked Down Flat

L&D: Loss & Damage

lbs: Pounds

LCL: Less than Car Load

b: Long Ton (2,240 lbs.)

LH: Line Haul

Liq: (a) Liquor; (b) Liquid

Ltd: Limited

Uge: Lighterage

LTL: Less than Truckload

Lv: Leave

M: Million

MAC: Middle Atlantic Conference

Max: Maximum

MC: (a) Minimum Charge; (b) Motor Carrier

Mdse: Merchandise

Memo: memorandum

MF-1CC: Designation used on tariffs and schedules filed with Interstate Commerce Min Commission by carriers subject to Motor Carrier Act

Min: Minimum

Min Wt: Minimum Weight

Mise: Miscellaneous

MO: Money Order

Mt: Mount

Mty: Empty

MWMFB: Middlewest Motor Freight Bureau

NAC: North Atlantic Coast

NB: Northbound

NEMRB: New England Motor Rate Bureau

NFTB: Niagara Frontier Tariff Bureau

NMFC: National Motor Freight Classification

No: Number

NOI: Not otherwise indexed

NOIBN: Not otherwise indexed by name

NOS: Not otherwise specified

NSF: Not sufficient funds

Nstd: Nested

Nt: Net Ton

Ntfy: Notify

OBL: Order Bill of Lading

O/C: Overcharge

OK: All Right

O/N: Order Notify

OR: Owner's Risk

OS&D: Over Short and Damage

O/T: Other Than

OT: Open Top Trailer

O/Z: Out of Zone (Delivery)

Oz: Ounce

P&D: Pickup and Delivery

P/A: Power of Attorney

Par: Paragraph

PCO: Portland Collection Office

Pcs: Pieces

Pd: Paid

PD: Property Damage

Per An: Per Annum

Pft: Preferred

PHP: Packing House Products

PITB: Pacific Inland Tariff Bureau

Pkg: Package

PI: Place

PL: Public Liability

Pis: Please

Pits: Private Line Telephone Service

PO: Post Office

POD: Proof of Delivery

PP or PPD: (a) Prepay; (b) Prepaid

PP: Pages

Pr: Pair

Pro: Progressive

Prop: Property

PSC: Public Service Commission

Pt: (a) Point; (b) Pint; (c) Port

PU: Pickup

PU&D: Pickup and Delivery

PUC: Public Utilities Commission

Q: Question

Qt: (a) Quart; (b) Quantity

R/C: Reconsignment

Rept: Receipt

Ref: Reference

Refer: Refrigerator, Refrigeration

Reg: Regulations

Rel: Released

Rel Val: Released Valuation

Rep: (a) Report; (b) Representative

Ret: Returned

Rev: Revenue

RMMTB: Rocky Mountain Motor Tariff Bureau

RS OR L: And other articles classified or rated the same or lower

Rte: Route

RV pm: Revolutions per minute

RVNX: Released Value not Exceeding

Salv: Salvage

Sap: Soon as possible

S/B: Should be

SB: Southbound

S/C: Surcharge

Schd: Schedule

Sec: Section

Sh Tn: Short Ton (2,000 lbs.)

S/H/B: Should have been

Shtg: Shortage

SL&C: Shipper's Load and Count

SMCRS: Southern Motor Carriers Rate Conference

SO: Shipping Order

Sq Ft: Square Feet

Sq In: Square In

Sq: Square

SR: Shipping Receipts

S/R: Shipper's Route

Sta: Station

Stats: (a) Statistics; (b) Statutes

SU: Set Up

Sup Ct: U.S. Supreme Court Reporter

System

Sup: Supplement

SWMFB: Southwestern Motor Freight Bureau

SWT: Southwestern Territory

Sys: System

TC: Transport Clearings

T/d/b/a: Trading and doing business as

Tel: Telephone

Term: Terminal

Terr: Territory

TIE: Terminal Income and Expense

Tnge: Tonnage

TOM: Trailer-on-Flat-Car

Tot: Total

Tran: Transit

Trf: Tariff

Uc: Undercharge

US: United States

USH: United States Highway

USSG: United States Standard Gauge

V or Vs: Versus

WB: Westbound

Wdt: Width

Whf: (a) Wharf; (b) Wharfage

Yr: Year

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